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2019年01月21日 01:22:14 | 作者:飞度排名四川新闻网 | 来源:新华社
Science and technology科学技术Embryonic stem cells胚胎干细胞Looking up进展中的干细胞研究Stem-cell research is now bearing fruit 干细胞研究开始结出硕果FOURTEEN years ago James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin isolated stem cells from human embryos.十四年前,当威斯康辛大学的 James Thomson从人类胚胎细胞中分离出干细胞时,It was an exciting moment.人们无不为之欢呼雀跃。The ability of such cells to morph into any other sort of cell suggested that worn-out or damaged tissues might be repaired,这种细胞可分裂、转变成为各种器官、组织,因此或将被用于修复、and diseases thus treated a technique that has come to be known as regenerative medicine.治疗损伤、病变的组织,这一技术被称为再生医疗。Since then progress has been erratic and controversial.但随后这一领域的发展呈现了不稳定性、胚胎细胞的来源问题也引发了社会争议。But, as two new papers prove, progress there has indeed been.但是这两篇新论文的发表,明了干细胞研究取得了一定的进展。This weeks Lancet published results from a clinical trial that used embryonic stem cells in people.本周《柳叶刀》刊出了胚胎干细胞应用于人体的临床实验的结果。It follows much disappointment.人们对这样的消息常常都是失望:In November, for example, a company in California cancelled what had been the first trial of human embryonic stem cells, in those with spinal injuries.例如,去年11月,一家位于加州的公司取消了原定的首例人胚胎干细胞在脊髓损伤者身上的试验。Steven Schwartz of the University of California, Los Angeles, however, claims some success in treating a different problem: blindness.但是洛杉矶加州大学的Steven Schwartz说他在干细胞治疗其它疾病:如失明,就取得了一些成绩。His research, sponsored by Advanced Cell Technology, a company based in Massachusetts, involved two patients.他的研究是在先进细胞技术院的赞助下进行的,这家公司位于马萨诸塞州,两名病患参与了试验,One has age-related macular degeneration, the main cause of blindness in rich countries.一位是老年性黄斑变性病患者,这是发达国家盲人病患常见的致盲原因。The other suffers from Stargardts macular dystrophy, its main cause in children.另一位是隐性黄斑营养不良症患者,这是儿童致盲的主要原因。Dr Schwartz and his team coaxed embryonic stem cells to become retinal pigment epithelium tissue which supports the rod and cone cells that actually respond to light他的团队诱导胚胎干细胞成为视网膜色素上皮组织细胞-其中的杆细胞及锥晶细胞对光线敏感。then injected 50,000 of them into one eye of each patient,然后给每个参试病患的眼睛内注射50,000单位的此种细胞,with the hope that they would bolster the natural supply of these cells.希望这些细胞能在体内像原有细胞一样自然生长。The result was a qualified success.结果相当成功。First and foremost, neither patient had an adverse reaction to the transplant always a risk when foreign tissue is put into someones body.首先,也是最重要的是,两位病患都没有对新移植的细胞产生排斥-这是移植异体组织常常要面临的风险。Second, though neither had vision restored to any huge degree, each was able, four months after the transplant,其次,虽然两名患者的视力没有很大程度的恢复,但移植4个月后,to distinguish more letters of the alphabet than they could beforehand.与患病前相比,他们都能识别出更多视力表上的字母了。Whether Dr Schwartzs technique will prove truly useful remains to be seen. Experimental treatments fail far more often than they succeed.但现在就确定的说Dr Schwartz的技术很实用还为时尚早,失败的试验远比成功的案例更多。But the second paper, published in Nature by Lawrence Goldstein of the University of California, San Diego, and his colleagues,但由圣迭戈加州大学的 Lawrence Goldstein及其同事发表在《自然》杂志的这篇论文,shows how stem cells can be of use even if they do not lead directly to treatment.也是我想说的第二篇论文,就能看出干细胞尽管还不能直接用于治疗,但已经相当“好使”了。Since 2006 researchers have been able to reprogram adult cells into an embryonic state, using proteins called transcription factors.自从2006年以来,研究人员已经能用一种称为转录因子的蛋白质分子将体细胞诱导成为类似胚胎细胞的干细胞,Though these reprogrammed cells, known as induced pluripotent stem cells, might one day be used for treatment,尽管这种诱导多潜能干细胞迟早会有一天能在再生医疗领域大展拳脚,their immediate value is that they are also an excellent way to understand illness.但眼下,它们的价值则体现在对疾病的研究上,这是个很好的方法。Using them, it is possible to make pure cultures of types of cells that have gone wrong in a body.利用它们就能离体培养出与体内患病组织相同类型的细胞来。Crucially, the cultured cells are genetically identical to the diseased ones in the patient.关键是,这些培养出的细胞与患者的染病细胞在基因组成上是相同的。Dr Goldstein is therefore using iPS cells to try to understand Alzheimers disease.因此,Dr Goldstein将用iPS来揭开阿尔茨海默症的病因。The brains of those with advanced Alzheimers are characterised by deposits,重症阿尔茨海默病患者的大脑内明显特征是,有一种称为淀粉样蛋白碎片的积淀物,known as plaques, of a protein-fragment called beta-amyloid, and by tangles of a second protein, called tau.也是我们所称的斑块,与另一种蛋白的结团物。But how these plaques and tangles are related remains unclear.但这些斑块和结团是何种关系还不明确。To learn more, Dr Goldstein took tissue from six people:为了深入研究, Dr Goldstein从6位病患身上取了组织:two with familial Alzheimers, a rare form caused by a known genetic mutation;2位是家族阿尔茨海默病患者-因较罕见的基因突变所引发的;two with sporadic Alzheimers, whose direct cause is unknown; and two unaffected individuals who acted as controls.2位是散发性阿尔茨海默病患者-致病原因不详;2位是行动可控的未患病者。He reprogrammed the cells collected into iPS cells, then nudged them to become nerve cells.先将收集的体细胞诱导成iPS,再用这些iPS细胞转化神经细胞。In three of the four Alzheimers patients these lab-made nerve cells did,4位阿尔茨海默病患者中,3位的实验获得神经细胞中,表现出高水平的淀粉样蛋白和蛋白,indeed, show higher levels of beta-amyloid and tau and also of another characteristic of the disease, an enzyme called active GSK3-beta.并且,与此疾病相关的另一特征:一种称为GSK3活性酶的水平也较高。Since he now had the cells in culture, Dr Goldstein could investigate the relationship between the three.于是,他将这三种神经细胞植入培养皿中培养,以发现三者之间的关系。To do so he treated the cultured cells with drugs.之后,他就能用药物来处理培养出的细胞。He found that a drug which attacked beta-amyloid directly did not lead to lower levels of tau or active GSK3-beta;他发现用药物直接处理淀粉样蛋白并不能致使Tau蛋白和GSK3活性酶的水平降低;but a drug which attacked one of beta-amyloids precursor molecules did have that effect.但如果用药物处理淀粉样蛋白的前体分子,效果就会很好。That is useful information, for it suggests where a pharmacological assault on the disease might best be directed.这是很有价值的信息,能判断在哪里用药才能直达病灶。In the short term, at least, iPS-based studies of this sort are likely to yield more scientific value than clinical experiments of the type conducted by Dr Schwartz,在短期内,此类基于iPS的研究在科学价值方面的意义远大于Dr Schwartz进行的临床实验结果,even though they are not treatments in themselves.因为他们的研究本身还不能用于治疗病患。That will, though, require many more pluripotent cells.不过,对多潜能干细胞的需求会与日俱增,And at least one firm is selling a way to make billions of iPS cells for just that purpose.至少有一家公司会源源不断的提供数十亿的iPS细胞用于此类研究,Its founder, appropriately, is Dr Thomson.它的创始人正是Thomson. /201403/279987Science and technology科学技术3D printing3D打印A new brick in the Great Wall构筑长城的新砖石Additive manufacturing is growing apace in China中国的叠层制造正在飞速发展ALTHOUGH it is the weekend, a small factory in the Haidian district of Beijing is hard at work.虽然是周末,北京海淀区的一座小型工厂还在努力地运转着。Eight machines, the biggest the size of a delivery van, are busy making things.厂里的八台机器正在忙碌地制造产品,最大的机器有厢式货车大小。Yet the factory, owned by Beijing Longyuan Automated Fabrication System, appears almost deserted.然而这家隶属于北京隆源自动成型系统有限公司的工厂看上去就像废弃了一样。This is because it is using additive-manufacturing machines, popularly known as three-dimensional printers, which run unattended day and night, seven days a week.这是因为工厂使用的是叠层制造设备,即广为人知的三维打印机,可以一周七天,不分昼夜的无人化运转。The printers require an occasional visit from a supervisor to top them up with the powdered materials they use as their inks, or to remove a completed item, but apart from that they can be left on their own.这些打印机需要管理员不定期的来为其加满粉末状原料,作为它们的墨水,或者取走完成的物品,但除此之外,这些打印机可以自行运转。They build up the objects they are making one layer at a time, as the ink is sintered into place with a laser in a way that creates little waste and can make shapes impossible to achieve using the traditional subtractive technology of lathes, milling machines and cutting tools.它们一次一层的逐步构造物品,用激光以一种不会产生什么废料的方式将墨水在适当位置烧结,可以做出采用传统削减技术的车床、铣床、刀具不可能做出的形状。Though it is not yet y for use in mass production, 3D printing is excellent for making prototypes, customised jobs and short production runs, for there is no need to retool each time the specification changes.虽然3D打印目前不能用于大批量生产,但3D打印非常适用于制造原型件,定制加工及小批量生产,因为改变规格时不需要每次都更换刀具,All that need be done is to alter the software that controls the print heads.需要的只是更改控制打印头的软件而已。Western countries led the development of 3D printing, and the technique has been praised by Barack Obama as a way to revive Americas manufacturing industries.西方国家引领了3D打印的发展,该技术还被巴拉克·奥巴马誉为复兴美国制造业的一种途径。It may yet do so.3D打印或许能不负所望。But the extent to which that revival will be brought about by the return to America of production which has migrated to countries like China is harder to predict—for China has plans of its own.让以前转移到像中国这样的国家生产的产品回到美国生产会带来复兴,但复兴的程度更难预料——因为中国也有自己的计划。Keep your powder dry做好一切准备At the moment AFS is in the prototyping business.目前AFS从事的是原型设计业务,Its customers are mainly aerospace firms and vehicle-makers that need experimental designs turned into metal quickly.其客户大多是需要将实验设计快速转化为金属实样的航空公司及汽车制造商。The powders in its machines hoppers are plastics, waxes and foundry sand.其设备料斗中的粉末是塑料,蜡及铸造用砂。The results are sent off to foundries, where they are used to make moulds for the sand-casting of metal objects.完成品送到铸造厂,用来制作金属件砂模铸造用的模具。According to William Zeng, AFSs deputy general manager, all the parts needed to make a prototype car engine can be printed and cast in this way in under two weeks.据AFS的副总经理William Zeng称,制作一个汽车引擎原型所需的全部零件均可以这种方式打印并铸造,用时不到两周,A conventional machine shop would need several months to do that—not least because many of the components would have to be made by hand.而传统的机工车间需要数月时间才能做到——主要是因为许多组件需要手工制作。AFS also has a second line of business. It sells the laser-sintering printers it makes to others, for this is a rapidly growing industry.AFS还有一块副营业务,即将其制造的激光烧结打印机出售给其它公司,因为这是一个飞速增长的行业。And some of its machines, which cost up to 1.5m yuan, can do more than just sinter plastics, wax and sand; they can sinter metals directly.其某些设备的售价高达150万元人民币(约合25万美元),不只可以烧结塑料,蜡和砂子,还可以直接烧结金属。Indeed, one of the countrys largest 3D printers does just this.实际上,中国最大的3D打印机也有此功能。It is 12 metres long and it belongs to the National Laboratory for Aeronautics and Astronautics at Beihang University.该设备长12米,拥有者是北京航空航天大学的航空航天国家实验室。Wang Huaming, the laboratorys chief scientist, told a digital-manufacturing seminar organised recently by the Laboratory of High Performance Computing, a government research institute, that this behemoth is being employed to make large and complex parts for Chinas commercial-aircraft programme, which plans to build planes to rival those turned out by Airbus and Boeing.该实验室的首席科学家王华明最近在一次由高性能计算实验室组织的数字制造研讨会上说,这个大家伙是为中国的商用飞机项目制造大型复杂部件的,该项目计划制造出可以与空客和波音制造的飞机匹敌的飞机。These parts include titanium fuselage frames and high-strength steel landing-gear—objects that require the metal they are made from to be free of flaws which might cause them to fail.这些部件包括钛机身骨架及高强钢起落架,制造这些部件所用的金属要求没有任何瑕疵,否则会导致部件无法使用。Printing such things, rather than making them from precast metal, will be a technical tour de force, and Dr Wangs team is therefore working on the tricky problem of controlling the recrystallisation of metals after they have been melted by the laser.打印这些部件,而不用预制金属制作,将会是一项技术绝活,因此王士的团队正在致力解决的棘手问题是激光将金属熔化后对金属重结晶的控制。Making planes is about as high-tech as mechanical engineering gets.制造飞机算是机械工程中的高科技。But 3D printing in China is also busy at the other end of the market: extruding filaments of molten plastic to build up objects such as toys, mobile-phone cases and car fittings.但是3D打印在中国还广泛应用于其他市场:挤出熔融塑料的细丝来逐步构造出如玩具,手机壳及汽车配件等物品。One of the biggest firms in this field is Tiertime, which operates from Huairou on the outskirts of Beijing.位于北京市郊怀柔区的太尔时代是该领域最大的公司之一。Tiertime makes a range of 3D printers that produce objects from polymeric alloys of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene.太尔时代生产一系列3D打印机,可以用丙烯腈,丁二烯和苯乙烯的聚合物合金制作物品。Tiertimes printers are also often used in the prototyping business, but unlike those of AFS they sit in designers offices rather than on factory floors.太尔时代的打印机也常用于原型设计业务,但与AFS的设备不同,太尔时代的设备是置于设计师的办公室,而非工厂的车间里。Some are small enough to sit on a desk.有的设备小到可以放在桌子上。They allow people to print their ideas directly, rather than having to.这让人们可以直接将自己的创意打印出来,而不用将创意发出去让别人制作。The company also makes even smaller printers, called UP, which sell for less than 6,000 yuan.太尔时代甚至还可以制造更小的打印机,叫做UP,售价不到6000元人民币。Personal printers like these are helping to create a Chinese version of the maker movement—a mixture of hobbyists and craft producers who, finding that 3D-printing technology greatly lowers the cost of going into production, are creating small manufacturing businesses.类似UP的个人打印机正在促进中国版创客运动的形成,即一批发现3D打印技术极大的降低了投产成本的业余爱好者及工艺品制造者正在纷纷建立小型制造企业。The maker movement began in America, but it is taking off in China too.创客运动始于美国,但在中国的创客运动也在迅速发展。Maker fairs are now being held in some of the big cities. Officials seem happy to encourage this, and some talk of introducing 3D printers into schools, to spark pupils interest in careers in engineering.某些大城市现在正在举办创客展会。官方似乎乐于持创客运动,某些官员谈及将3D打印机引入学校,激发学生从事工程职业的兴趣。3D printing is still a long way from replacing mass manufacturing. But in China, as in America and Europe, the technology is changing the way products are developed and made.3D打印要想取代大批量生产还有很长一段路要走。但在中国,与在美国和欧洲一样,该技术正在改变开发和制造产品的方式。And by lowering the cost of entry, 3D printing could herald yet another new generation of Chinese manufacturing entrepreneurs.通过降低成本门槛,3D打印或许能创造出新一代的中国制造业企业家。 /201312/267007When I started seeing the news clips, the day he died, my heart sank.当我开始看新闻报道,他死的那一天,我的心为之一震。Michael was the most exciting performer I had ever seen in my life. 迈克尔是我在自己的生命中曾经见过的最令人激动人心的表演者。He was the ultimate pop superstar. 他是曾经最棒的流行巨星。He wanted more than anything for his legacy to be. 他想要自己留下的东西超过任何事物。He is the greatest performer of all time and thats what he became.他一直是最伟大的表演者之一而且他真的就是这样。A kid, 11 years old, singing that song with that much emotion, 一个11岁的孩子饱含那种情绪,唱着那首歌,it was incredible.太不可思议了。He had a dream. 他曾经怀揣梦想。He had direction and he stuck with it.他有前进的方向而且他坚持下来了。201306/244800

Books and Arts;New cinema; The cradle will rock;文艺;新片;摇篮将覆;Lynne Ramsay has crafted an elegant adaptation of a tricky book;琳恩·拉姆塞将一本难处理的书精心改编成了一部优雅的作品;What is more taboo than a woman who is repulsed by her own child? This is the genius of “We Need to Talk About Kevin”, a remarkable novel from Lionel Shriver (a former literary critic for this paper), which considers the life of a reluctant mother after her teenage son commits mass murder. The story unfurls as a stream of letters from Eva Khatchadourian to her husband as she retraces the steps of their lives together—the happy marriage that morphs into a toxic family, and the haunting event that casts everything in shadow. Yet even as Eva recounts evidence of her sons malevolence at a young age, the er is left with a galling question: would Kevin have fared better if his mother loved him more?还有什么能比一个被自己亲生孩子憎恶的母亲更令人忌讳的呢?这就是《凯文怎么了》一书的精髓。它是莱昂内尔·施赖弗(本报的前任文学家)的一部杰出小说,讲述了一位母亲在自己十几岁的孩子犯下屠杀大罪后勉强度日的生活。故事随着伊娃·卡查度瑞安写给丈夫的一连串信件展开,她追溯了他们共同生活的那些阶段——从一段美好婚姻走向了一个毒性家庭,还有那个让一切都变得灰暗的萦绕于心的事件。然而即使伊娃重新搜集了她儿子幼年时狠毒本性的据,读者仍然会被一个恼人的问题所困扰:如果他的母亲曾多爱他一些的话,凯文会不会好很多?It takes courage to adapt an epistolary novel for the screen, particularly one as psychologically complex as this one. Yet Lynne Ramsays film of the same name, starring Tilda Swinton as Eva, is excellent. The gift of this version is its visual rendering of Evas claustrophobic thoughts. With a minimalist screenplay written with Rory Kinnear, Ms Ramsay translates Evas clot of dark and messy words into a collage of evocative and mostly wordless scenes. These vignettes shift from the present—Eva living as a social pariah, a husk of her former self—to the past, and are jumbled with the non-chronology of memory. As in the book, Kevins big, violent moment is left until the end, but the bloody fact of it infects everything that comes before.将一部书信体小说搬上银幕需要很大的勇气,尤其当涉及复杂的心理学,例如本片。然而琳恩·拉姆塞的这部同名电影却很优秀。蒂尔达·斯文顿在片中饰演伊娃。该片的精髓表现在对伊娃的幽闭恐惧症想法那栩栩如生的描绘上。剧本由罗里·金奈尔创作,风格极简。拉姆塞将伊娃那一团团模糊凌乱的文字转化成了一系列场景的拼贴,这些大都无言的场景能够唤起人们的回忆。如今的伊娃生活在社会底层,只剩下一副当初的自己的躯壳。这些小片段从当前切换到曾经,不同年月的记忆互相交织,错综复杂。同书里一样,凯文重要的施暴时刻被留在了末尾,但它那血腥的事实感染了之前的一切。Still, something is lost in witnessing Kevin in the flesh instead of through Evas unreliable recollections. In the novel, Eva perceives her sons cruelty from the start, though it goes unseen by his doting father Franklin (played here by John C. Reilly, everyones favourite pushover). On-screen, Kevin is quite obviously malicious, first as a nasty little boy and then as a spiteful, ink-eyed teenager. As the latter Kevin, Ezra Miller seethes with ruthlessness, his face impenetrable. Yet he is also distractingly attractive, with cheekbones any starlet would covet, making him an awkward choice for such an enigmatic role.尽管如此,在经由伊娃那不可靠的回忆而非亲自目击凯文的过程中,某些东西还是不见了。在小说中,伊娃从一开始就感觉到了儿子的残忍,但它随着宠溺凯文的父亲(由人人都爱的弱敌约翰·C·赖利饰演)而被漠视。在影片中,凯文的恶毒颇为明显,起初是一个险恶的小男孩,然后变成一个目光阴沉的刻毒少年。饰演后者的埃兹拉·米勒爆发出了残忍,他的面部表情不可测知。而米勒同时也令人走神地引力十足。他有着任何小明星都觊觎的颧骨,因此由他来扮演这样一个谜一般的角色显得不尴不尬。This is not a problem that affects Ms Swinton, who carries this film. Not unlike a praying mantis, her odd and otherworldly beauty takes time to notice. Her face, powerful in its spareness, registers emotion with subtle ticks and justments. As Eva, she conveys the desolation of a life made meaningless, first by the lonely challenges of motherhood, then by tragedy. Driving in her car to the chirpy strains of Buddy Hollys “Every day seems a little longer”, her ghost-eyed stare keeps us locked in her nightmare.但这不会对携领全片的斯文顿产生任何影响。她就像一只螳螂,需要时间才能体会出她那奇特脱俗的美。她的脸,瘦弱之中充满力量,将情感在微妙的运转与调整之中。她饰演的伊娃传达了生活在丧失其意义之后的荒芜,先是由于身为人母的孤独挑战,接着是因为这出悲剧。她驱车进入了不断叫嚣着巴迪·霍利笔下“每一天都变得更加漫长”的语境之中。她那幽灵般双目的凝视也将我们深锁在她的噩梦之中。 /201307/246971

Business this week一周商业要闻Oct 26th 2013 |From the print editionThe European Central Bank announced that it will begin its review of the quality of assets held by 128 banks in November. The review will cover all asset classes and be incorporated into the European Banking Authority’s stress tests next year. The ECB wants big banks to have core capital ratios of 8%, rather than the 7% under current regulations.欧洲央行日前表示:将于今年11月份起对欧元区的128家进行资产的质量审核。此次审查将囊括所有资产类型,并纳入明年央行当局对的压力检验。欧洲央行还表示希望大能将核心资本的缓冲比率调至8%,而不是现行条令下的7%。Pick a number, any number捡了芝麻,丢了西瓜JPMorgan Chase and America’s Justice Department negotiated the final details of a settlement for mis-selling mortgage-backed securities that reportedly is going to cost the bank billion. It may have to dig deeper still: details were also leaked of a separate settlement that JPMorgan is close to agreeing on with investors for billion.日前,根大通集团和美国司法部签署了一份最终赔偿协议,根据该协议,根大通需要为其不当出售抵押券付130亿美元的罚金。对此事进行深层跟踪后得到数据显示:根大通集团可能还将向投资者机构再付60亿美元以达成和解。A federal jury in a civil case found Bank of America liable for fraud because of toxic home-loans its Countrywide Financial unit sold to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, two government-backed mortgage giants, in 2007-08. Countrywide bundled the loans under a project it called “Hustle”.联邦陪审团在一次民事案件的调查中发现美国涉嫌诈骗,因其各金融单位在2007年8月向两家已国有化的抵押贷款巨头房利美和房地美出售次级住房贷款。这个全国范围的出售贷款的项目被称为“快速泳道”。America’s Securities and Exchange Commission proposed new rules to ease the ability of start-ups to raise money through crowd funding platforms on the internet. The rules would introduce limits on the amount that small investors can invest based on their income and net worth (up to 5% of annual income below 0,000, for instance), and on the amount that firms can raise.美国券交易管理委员会出台新政策:通过网络众筹平台来缓解初创企业筹集资金的压力。该政策规定:个人投资者的投资金额上限由其收入确定(例如年收入低于10万美元的个人最高投资额度不超过其收入的5%);而对于企业来说,这个额度会相对高一些。Karnit Flug was appointed as the new governor of the Bank of Israel. Ms Flug was deputy to the previous governor, Stanley Fischer, and has acted as the central bank’s head since July. She is expected to continue the loose monetary policy that marked Mr Fischer’s tenure. In June the bank tapped Jacob Frenkel, an international financier, to be governor, but he withdrew from consideration.卡尔尼特#8226;弗拉格当选以色列央行的新任行长。在此之前,弗拉格一直担任前任行长斯坦利#8226;费希尔的代理人,并从七月份起以央行主管的身份管理央行业务。她预计将继续实施费希尔任职期间实施的宽松的货币政策。今年六月份央行希望国际金融专家雅各布#8226;弗兰克尔出任央行行长,但被其拒绝。It emerged that Raoul Weil, who used to run the wealth-management division at UBS, Switzerland’s biggest bank, was arrested while on holiday in Italy. The ed Stateshas issued an extradition request for Mr Weil in relation to its probe of Swiss banks that allegedly help Americans evade tax. He is the biggest fish to be netted since the investigation began in 2008.拉乌尔#8226;韦尔在意大利渡假时被捕,据悉其曾在瑞士最大的瑞联集团的资产管理部任职。美国政府发出引渡请求,因其在瑞士工作期间帮助美国客户逃避税款。他是自2008年立案调查以来最大的落网之鱼。American employers added 148,000 jobs to the payrolls in September, somewhat short of the monthly average of 181,000 between January and August. The employment report’s publication was delayed by the government shutdown, which Standard amp; Poor’s reckons will cost the economy billion. The data make it less likely that the Federal Reserve will announce an easing of its stimulus programme at its October meeting.美国九月份新增非农就业岗位14.8万个,低于1月至8月的月平均水平18.1万个。由于政府关门事件,劳工就业的报告发布推迟。标准普尔预计此举将造成240亿的经济损失。据此分析,美联储在接下来的十月会议中很有可能继续实施刺激计划。After nine consecutive quarters of contraction, the Spanish economy grew by 0.1% from July to September, according to a first estimate from the country’s central bank, thanks to a bounce in exports.西班牙在经历了连续9个季度的经济萎缩之后终于开始回升,根据央行的初步估计,该国经济7月到9月期间在出口的拉动下增长了0.1%。On target?成功实现了吗?China’s economic growth rate picked up slightly in the third quarter, allaying fears, for now, of an acute slowdown. GDP rose by 7.8% in the quarter compared with the same period last year.中国经济增长率在第三季度略有上升,这缓解了人们对于眼下经济增长急剧下降的忧虑。GDP在该季度同比去年增加了7.8%。Apple, Microsoft and Nokia unveiled new tablets. The Lumia 2520 is Nokia’s first tablet, and also its last before it merges fully with Microsoft. The pair aly co-operate on mobile technology and may streamline their combined product range. Both struggle to compete with Apple, which brought out the iPad Air this week, a thinner and lighter version of its full-sized tablet.苹果,微软和诺基亚都推出了新的平板电脑。Lumia 2520是诺基亚推出的首款平板电脑,也是其与微软完全合并前最后的产品。这两家公司已经在移动技术上展开合作,且有可能优化他们结合起来的产品范围。微软和诺基亚两家公司将就该产品与苹果本周推出的ipad Air (在原有尺寸的基础上变得更轻薄的一款机型)争夺市场。Google’s share price surged above ,000 for the first time after it issued solid quarterly earnings underpinned by a 26% jump in paid clicks from ads. The tech company joins just a handful of big firms with a share price over ,000, though more could follow as companies now tend not to split their stock when the share price rockets.谷歌公布其稳定的季度收益(其中26%的收入来自广告费的投入)后,其股价首次突破1000美元。谷歌作为一个技术公司,加入仅有的少数几个股价超过1000美元的大公司行列。而更多的人可以买进谷歌的股票,因为目前它没有趁股价飙升分裂股权的打算。The European Court of Justice ruled that the veto held by Lower Saxony over strategic management decisions at Volkswagen, which has its headquarters in the German state, did not breach EU rules. The European Commission brought the case, arguing that Germany had not complied with a previous ruling to dilute the “VW law”.欧洲法院裁定:下萨克森州持有大众汽车(总部设在德国)战略管理决策的否决权并不违背欧盟条约。欧盟委员会则认为德国没有遵守之前撤销“大众法”的判决。The café-culture revolution咖啡文化的变革Starbucks was roundly denounced on Chinese state television for selling lattes and cappuccinos at higher prices than in other countries, the latest in a string of criticisms directed at foreign companies operating in China. Coffee sales in China have grown by 90% over the past few years, making it the second-biggest market, after the ed States, for Starbucks. It says the criticisms are unfair. Local factors, such as a 15% import duty on roasted beans, help push up the price of a cup of coffee.近期,中国对外企在华经营模式展开了一系列批判,其中中国央视曾严厉指责星巴克以明显高于其他国家的价格在中国售卖拿铁和卡布奇诺咖啡。在过去的几年中,中国的咖啡销售额增长了90%,成为了星巴克继美国之后的第二大市场。星巴克对此做出回应,表示中国当局对其指责并不公平:中国的咖啡价格比他国高昂存在很多原因,其首要原因就是地方因素,例如烘培咖啡豆的进口关税就要征收15%之多。201311/264370

Silkworms have been bred over thousands of years to behave quite unlike their caterpillarcousins in the wild.蚕这种动物已经被人类豢养了上千年,这使得它们的行为远远异于野外的毛毛虫同类们。Thats because people purposely breed silkworms to fit this job description:因为人类故意培养蚕,使得它们能够适应这样的工作岗位:WANTED–Superlative silk producers.诚聘:招优秀的产丝工。Benefits include housing, unlimited food and protection fromall predators.福利包括住房、包吃包喝、不受天敌威胁。Wanderlust greatly discouraged. No opportunity for travel.不欢迎旅游迷。没有出差机会。Obviously, what makes a good silk producer in captivity is very different from what helps a caterpillar survive in the wild.很明显,造就人工饲养的产丝能手的条件跟让野生毛毛虫在野外生存的能力会非常不同。Commercial silkworms are dynamos at silk production, andcompared to their wild relatives, rather sluggish about everything else.跟它们的野生同类相比,商用蚕在产丝方面是能手,但在其他任何方面的行动都很迟缓。Outdoors, youve probably seen caterpillars crawling to find food or hide from birds, butcommercial silkworm caterpillars hardly move.在户外,你可能见过毛毛虫爬来爬去寻找食物或躲避鸟类,但是商用蚕幼虫很少活动。For silk production, theyre kept on open traysbecause theyre content to stay put, as long as they have a steady supply of mulberry leaves.为了产丝,这些蚕就被放在敞口的匾上,因为只要有充足的桑叶供应,它们就会满足于一动不动地呆着。Even when they reach the moth stage, commercial silkworms are surprisingly immobile.即使商用蚕蜕变成蛾子,它们的活动力也惊人地弱。Wildmoths fly to evade predators and to lay their eggs in different areas.野生的蛾子会到处飞,以躲避天敌并且把卵产在不同的地方。However, commercial silkworm moths havent needed to do these things for thousands of years.但是,从上千年前开始,商用蚕的蛾子就不用做这些事情了。Theyve completelylost the ability to fly, even though they still have wings!即使它们仍然有翅膀,它们也已对完全丧失了飞行的能力。Heres another difference.还有一处不同。In the wild, moths are often very particular about where theyll lay eggs.野外的蛾子通常对产卵地点很挑剔。This ensures that baby caterpillars can chomp their favorite leaves as soon as they hatch.这可以保它们的幼虫一孵化就能吃到喜欢吃的树叶。Commercial silkworm moths have lost that instinct too.商用蚕的蛾子连这种本能也丧失了。Theyll even lay eggs on a sheet of paper,where its easy for humans to keep track of them.它们甚至会在纸张上产卵,对于人类来说可以很方便的找到它们。 /201404/289950

Mobile telecoms in Pakistan巴基斯坦的移动通信业At last, 3G终于等到你,3GThe government raises a bit of money and gets a long-awaited industry started政府筹集到了一定资金,启动了长期停滞的产业Now we can really start shopping现在我们可以真正意义上开始购物IN PAKISTAN, as in other poor parts of the world, mobile telecoms are vital to the countrys development, bypassing obstructive bureaucrats and bringing services directly to the masses—from banking to voter registration. Yet it is the only country in South Asia that does not have high-speed mobile internet, because only this week, after eight years of delays and regulatory snarl-ups, did it at last hold an auction of the spectrum required to roll out 3G and 4G services.移动通信的发展对于巴基斯坦以及世界上其他的贫困地区的发展至关重要,避开官僚作风的阻碍,将直接务于大众—从业到选民登记。同时,他也是南亚唯一没有高速移动网络的国家。因为在持续8年的推延以及官僚阻滞的影响下,直到这个星期,巴基斯坦才举行开展3G和4G业务所需频谱的招标。 Demand for the licences fell short of the governments hopes. The finance minister, Ishaq Dar, had talked of the auction raising billion; in the end it produced just under .2 billion. Successful bids were made by two local operators, Mobilink and Ufone, and two foreign ones, China Mobile and Telenor of Norway. Two other big foreign firms that had been expected to take part, Saudi Telecom and Turkcell of Turkey, got cold feet after, it is said, having their request for exclusive one-year licences rejected.运营权的需求度低于政府的预期。金融部长Ishaq Dar曾经提及招标计划是20亿美金,但是最后只产生了12亿不到。成功中标的包括Mobilink 以及Ufone 这两家本土公司以及China Mobile 和 Telenor of Norway这两家国外公司。其他两个国外大集团Saudi Telecom 和 Turkcell of Turkey曾有望参与其中,但是却临阵退缩了。据说是因为拒绝了他们一年独家经营权的要求。The year Pakistans government first talked about auctioning 3G spectrum, 2006, was the year Sri Lanka actually started its services. India held its auction in 2010. Even now, in both these countries only a modest proportion of the population enjoys access to high-speed mobile broadband—but they are far ahead of Pakistan and Bangladesh (see chart).在斯里兰卡实际开启其3G业务的2006年,巴基斯坦政府第一次提及3G频谱的拍卖。印度在2010年招标。即使是现在,这两个国家只有一部分人喜欢连接高速移动宽带——但是这比例也远比巴基斯坦和孟加拉要高。In 2003 Pakistans then military dictator, Pervez Musharraf, deregulated mobile telecoms to attract foreign investment. But the civilian administration that succeeded him in 2008 spent years lurching from one crisis to another, and failed to promote the industry. A new government, in power since last June, has faced down protests from opposition politicians and, at last, held the auction.2003年,巴基斯坦当时的军事独裁者Pervez Musharraf解除对于移动通信业的管制来吸引外商投资。但是2008年接任的平民政府在不断发生的危机中步履蹒跚,发展该产业也失败了。去年六月上台的新政府面对反对派的抗议,最终举行了招标。It could have copied war-torn Afghanistan, which has done without an auction, and simply sold licences at low prices, starting in 2012. It did so on the grounds that the economic boost from introducing 3G should be bigger than the one-off windfall from an auction that might have got mired in corruption allegations.它本可以模仿饱受战乱的阿富汗,自2012年开始,不进行招标,单纯地以低价出售经营权。阿富汗这样做,因为引入3G带来的经济发展的利益比一次性拍卖来得高,后者还可能会陷入腐败的指控中去。Pakistans new government, however, needed cash to replenish its foreign reserves. It has not got as much as it wanted, but a less competitive auction may give the successful operators more of a chance to build a profitable business. They have long been plagued by fickle government policies and tight margins in a market that has some of the lowest average revenues per user in the world, at around a month.但是巴基斯坦的新政府需要现金来重新扩大它的外汇储备。它没有获得其预期的那么多,但是竞争不太激烈的招标或许能给中标方更多的机会来建立一个盈利的项目。他们长期困扰于多变的政策以及市场利润空间不足的情况,因为一些用户处于世界上最低收入水平,每月收入在2美元左右。With a crippling energy crisis that leaves its cities powerless for up to 12 hours a day and the villages for longer, and an Islamist insurgency that has paralysed businesses and deterred all but the bravest foreign investors, the country of nearly 200m people sorely needs the boost that high-speed mobile-internet access should bring. A recent study by a British consulting firm, commissioned by the Pakistani government, predicted that by increasing economic activity it could help create up to 900,000 jobs over the next four years, and bring in hundreds of millions of dollars a year of new tax revenues.伴随着严重的能源危机,巴基斯坦的城市一天有12个小时断电,乡村更久。并且伊斯兰叛乱活动使得商业瘫痪,除了那些最勇敢的外国投资者,没有其他人敢来。有将近2亿人的国家十分需要高速移动网络连接带来的发展。最近一项受巴基斯坦政府委任由英国顾问集团进行的研究,其预计通过增加经济活动,发展高速网络能在接下来的思念时间帮助创造90万的岗位,并带来每年亿万美元的税收收入。Nevertheless, as elsewhere in South Asia, the sp of the mobile internet is likely to be slow, since it depends on people replacing their basic handsets with smartphones, which remain unaffordable for most Pakistanis. So far less than 10% of the countrys 132m mobile subscribers have smartphones, according to industry figures. However, Pakistans mobile operators are playing a long game. Even the local ones have deep-pocketed foreign backers that are prepared to wait for growth to pick up and dividends to flow.然而,就像南亚其他地方一样,手机网络的推广过程是缓慢的,因为它需要人们将他们的功能机置换成智能机,这对于大多数巴基斯坦人来说是难以负担的。产业数据显示,目前,该国1.32亿手机用户中不到10%拥有智能机。但是,巴基斯坦的移动运营商着眼于未来。即使本地运营商也有着有钱的国外赞助人,他们准备等待着发展腾飞、利益的扩张。 /201405/294997

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